pub struct RcString {
    string: Arc<String>,
}
Expand description

Resource counted string, used for names. RcStrings can be efficiently cloned.

Fields

string: Arc<String>

Implementations

Create a new resource counted string.

Methods from Deref<Target = String>

Extracts a string slice containing the entire String.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("foo");

assert_eq!("foo", s.as_str());

Returns this String’s capacity, in bytes.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::with_capacity(10);

assert!(s.capacity() >= 10);

Returns a byte slice of this String’s contents.

The inverse of this method is from_utf8.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = String::from("hello");

assert_eq!(&[104, 101, 108, 108, 111], s.as_bytes());

Returns the length of this String, in bytes, not chars or graphemes. In other words, it might not be what a human considers the length of the string.

Examples

Basic usage:

let a = String::from("foo");
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

let fancy_f = String::from("ƒoo");
assert_eq!(fancy_f.len(), 4);
assert_eq!(fancy_f.chars().count(), 3);

Returns true if this String has a length of zero, and false otherwise.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut v = String::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());

v.push('a');
assert!(!v.is_empty());

Methods from Deref<Target = str>

Returns the length of self.

This length is in bytes, not chars or graphemes. In other words, it might not be what a human considers the length of the string.

Examples

Basic usage:

let len = "foo".len();
assert_eq!(3, len);

assert_eq!("ƒoo".len(), 4); // fancy f!
assert_eq!("ƒoo".chars().count(), 3);

Returns true if self has a length of zero bytes.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "";
assert!(s.is_empty());

let s = "not empty";
assert!(!s.is_empty());

Checks that index-th byte is the first byte in a UTF-8 code point sequence or the end of the string.

The start and end of the string (when index == self.len()) are considered to be boundaries.

Returns false if index is greater than self.len().

Examples
let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(0));
// start of `老`
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(6));
assert!(s.is_char_boundary(s.len()));

// second byte of `ö`
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(2));

// third byte of `老`
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(8));
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (round_char_boundary)

Finds the closest x not exceeding index where is_char_boundary(x) is true.

This method can help you truncate a string so that it’s still valid UTF-8, but doesn’t exceed a given number of bytes. Note that this is done purely at the character level and can still visually split graphemes, even though the underlying characters aren’t split. For example, the emoji 🧑‍🔬 (scientist) could be split so that the string only includes 🧑 (person) instead.

Examples
#![feature(round_char_boundary)]
let s = "❤️🧡💛💚💙💜";
assert_eq!(s.len(), 26);
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(13));

let closest = s.floor_char_boundary(13);
assert_eq!(closest, 10);
assert_eq!(&s[..closest], "❤️🧡");
🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (round_char_boundary)

Finds the closest x not below index where is_char_boundary(x) is true.

This method is the natural complement to floor_char_boundary. See that method for more details.

Panics

Panics if index > self.len().

Examples
#![feature(round_char_boundary)]
let s = "❤️🧡💛💚💙💜";
assert_eq!(s.len(), 26);
assert!(!s.is_char_boundary(13));

let closest = s.ceil_char_boundary(13);
assert_eq!(closest, 14);
assert_eq!(&s[..closest], "❤️🧡💛");

Converts a string slice to a byte slice. To convert the byte slice back into a string slice, use the from_utf8 function.

Examples

Basic usage:

let bytes = "bors".as_bytes();
assert_eq!(b"bors", bytes);

Converts a mutable string slice to a mutable byte slice.

Safety

The caller must ensure that the content of the slice is valid UTF-8 before the borrow ends and the underlying str is used.

Use of a str whose contents are not valid UTF-8 is undefined behavior.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = String::from("Hello");
let bytes = unsafe { s.as_bytes_mut() };

assert_eq!(b"Hello", bytes);

Mutability:

let mut s = String::from("🗻∈🌏");

unsafe {
    let bytes = s.as_bytes_mut();

    bytes[0] = 0xF0;
    bytes[1] = 0x9F;
    bytes[2] = 0x8D;
    bytes[3] = 0x94;
}

assert_eq!("🍔∈🌏", s);

Converts a string slice to a raw pointer.

As string slices are a slice of bytes, the raw pointer points to a u8. This pointer will be pointing to the first byte of the string slice.

The caller must ensure that the returned pointer is never written to. If you need to mutate the contents of the string slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "Hello";
let ptr = s.as_ptr();

Converts a mutable string slice to a raw pointer.

As string slices are a slice of bytes, the raw pointer points to a u8. This pointer will be pointing to the first byte of the string slice.

It is your responsibility to make sure that the string slice only gets modified in a way that it remains valid UTF-8.

Returns a subslice of str.

This is the non-panicking alternative to indexing the str. Returns None whenever equivalent indexing operation would panic.

Examples
let v = String::from("🗻∈🌏");

assert_eq!(Some("🗻"), v.get(0..4));

// indices not on UTF-8 sequence boundaries
assert!(v.get(1..).is_none());
assert!(v.get(..8).is_none());

// out of bounds
assert!(v.get(..42).is_none());

Returns a mutable subslice of str.

This is the non-panicking alternative to indexing the str. Returns None whenever equivalent indexing operation would panic.

Examples
let mut v = String::from("hello");
// correct length
assert!(v.get_mut(0..5).is_some());
// out of bounds
assert!(v.get_mut(..42).is_none());
assert_eq!(Some("he"), v.get_mut(0..2).map(|v| &*v));

assert_eq!("hello", v);
{
    let s = v.get_mut(0..2);
    let s = s.map(|s| {
        s.make_ascii_uppercase();
        &*s
    });
    assert_eq!(Some("HE"), s);
}
assert_eq!("HEllo", v);

Returns an unchecked subslice of str.

This is the unchecked alternative to indexing the str.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that these preconditions are satisfied:

  • The starting index must not exceed the ending index;
  • Indexes must be within bounds of the original slice;
  • Indexes must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.

Failing that, the returned string slice may reference invalid memory or violate the invariants communicated by the str type.

Examples
let v = "🗻∈🌏";
unsafe {
    assert_eq!("🗻", v.get_unchecked(0..4));
    assert_eq!("∈", v.get_unchecked(4..7));
    assert_eq!("🌏", v.get_unchecked(7..11));
}

Returns a mutable, unchecked subslice of str.

This is the unchecked alternative to indexing the str.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that these preconditions are satisfied:

  • The starting index must not exceed the ending index;
  • Indexes must be within bounds of the original slice;
  • Indexes must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.

Failing that, the returned string slice may reference invalid memory or violate the invariants communicated by the str type.

Examples
let mut v = String::from("🗻∈🌏");
unsafe {
    assert_eq!("🗻", v.get_unchecked_mut(0..4));
    assert_eq!("∈", v.get_unchecked_mut(4..7));
    assert_eq!("🌏", v.get_unchecked_mut(7..11));
}
👎 Deprecated since 1.29.0:

use get_unchecked(begin..end) instead

Creates a string slice from another string slice, bypassing safety checks.

This is generally not recommended, use with caution! For a safe alternative see str and Index.

This new slice goes from begin to end, including begin but excluding end.

To get a mutable string slice instead, see the slice_mut_unchecked method.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that three preconditions are satisfied:

  • begin must not exceed end.
  • begin and end must be byte positions within the string slice.
  • begin and end must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.
Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

unsafe {
    assert_eq!("Löwe 老虎 Léopard", s.slice_unchecked(0, 21));
}

let s = "Hello, world!";

unsafe {
    assert_eq!("world", s.slice_unchecked(7, 12));
}
👎 Deprecated since 1.29.0:

use get_unchecked_mut(begin..end) instead

Creates a string slice from another string slice, bypassing safety checks. This is generally not recommended, use with caution! For a safe alternative see str and IndexMut.

This new slice goes from begin to end, including begin but excluding end.

To get an immutable string slice instead, see the slice_unchecked method.

Safety

Callers of this function are responsible that three preconditions are satisfied:

  • begin must not exceed end.
  • begin and end must be byte positions within the string slice.
  • begin and end must lie on UTF-8 sequence boundaries.

Divide one string slice into two at an index.

The argument, mid, should be a byte offset from the start of the string. It must also be on the boundary of a UTF-8 code point.

The two slices returned go from the start of the string slice to mid, and from mid to the end of the string slice.

To get mutable string slices instead, see the split_at_mut method.

Panics

Panics if mid is not on a UTF-8 code point boundary, or if it is past the end of the last code point of the string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "Per Martin-Löf";

let (first, last) = s.split_at(3);

assert_eq!("Per", first);
assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last);

Divide one mutable string slice into two at an index.

The argument, mid, should be a byte offset from the start of the string. It must also be on the boundary of a UTF-8 code point.

The two slices returned go from the start of the string slice to mid, and from mid to the end of the string slice.

To get immutable string slices instead, see the split_at method.

Panics

Panics if mid is not on a UTF-8 code point boundary, or if it is past the end of the last code point of the string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut s = "Per Martin-Löf".to_string();
{
    let (first, last) = s.split_at_mut(3);
    first.make_ascii_uppercase();
    assert_eq!("PER", first);
    assert_eq!(" Martin-Löf", last);
}
assert_eq!("PER Martin-Löf", s);

Returns an iterator over the chars of a string slice.

As a string slice consists of valid UTF-8, we can iterate through a string slice by char. This method returns such an iterator.

It’s important to remember that char represents a Unicode Scalar Value, and might not match your idea of what a ‘character’ is. Iteration over grapheme clusters may be what you actually want. This functionality is not provided by Rust’s standard library, check crates.io instead.

Examples

Basic usage:

let word = "goodbye";

let count = word.chars().count();
assert_eq!(7, count);

let mut chars = word.chars();

assert_eq!(Some('g'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('o'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('d'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('b'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next());
assert_eq!(Some('e'), chars.next());

assert_eq!(None, chars.next());

Remember, chars might not match your intuition about characters:

let y = "y̆";

let mut chars = y.chars();

assert_eq!(Some('y'), chars.next()); // not 'y̆'
assert_eq!(Some('\u{0306}'), chars.next());

assert_eq!(None, chars.next());

Returns an iterator over the chars of a string slice, and their positions.

As a string slice consists of valid UTF-8, we can iterate through a string slice by char. This method returns an iterator of both these chars, as well as their byte positions.

The iterator yields tuples. The position is first, the char is second.

Examples

Basic usage:

let word = "goodbye";

let count = word.char_indices().count();
assert_eq!(7, count);

let mut char_indices = word.char_indices();

assert_eq!(Some((0, 'g')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((1, 'o')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((2, 'o')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((3, 'd')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((4, 'b')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((5, 'y')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((6, 'e')), char_indices.next());

assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next());

Remember, chars might not match your intuition about characters:

let yes = "y̆es";

let mut char_indices = yes.char_indices();

assert_eq!(Some((0, 'y')), char_indices.next()); // not (0, 'y̆')
assert_eq!(Some((1, '\u{0306}')), char_indices.next());

// note the 3 here - the last character took up two bytes
assert_eq!(Some((3, 'e')), char_indices.next());
assert_eq!(Some((4, 's')), char_indices.next());

assert_eq!(None, char_indices.next());

An iterator over the bytes of a string slice.

As a string slice consists of a sequence of bytes, we can iterate through a string slice by byte. This method returns such an iterator.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut bytes = "bors".bytes();

assert_eq!(Some(b'b'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b'o'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b'r'), bytes.next());
assert_eq!(Some(b's'), bytes.next());

assert_eq!(None, bytes.next());

Splits a string slice by whitespace.

The iterator returned will return string slices that are sub-slices of the original string slice, separated by any amount of whitespace.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space. If you only want to split on ASCII whitespace instead, use split_ascii_whitespace.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut iter = "A few words".split_whitespace();

assert_eq!(Some("A"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("few"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("words"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

All kinds of whitespace are considered:

let mut iter = " Mary   had\ta\u{2009}little  \n\t lamb".split_whitespace();
assert_eq!(Some("Mary"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("had"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("a"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("little"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("lamb"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

Splits a string slice by ASCII whitespace.

The iterator returned will return string slices that are sub-slices of the original string slice, separated by any amount of ASCII whitespace.

To split by Unicode Whitespace instead, use split_whitespace.

Examples

Basic usage:

let mut iter = "A few words".split_ascii_whitespace();

assert_eq!(Some("A"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("few"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("words"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

All kinds of ASCII whitespace are considered:

let mut iter = " Mary   had\ta little  \n\t lamb".split_ascii_whitespace();
assert_eq!(Some("Mary"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("had"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("a"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("little"), iter.next());
assert_eq!(Some("lamb"), iter.next());

assert_eq!(None, iter.next());

An iterator over the lines of a string, as string slices.

Lines are ended with either a newline (\n) or a carriage return with a line feed (\r\n).

The final line ending is optional. A string that ends with a final line ending will return the same lines as an otherwise identical string without a final line ending.

Examples

Basic usage:

let text = "foo\r\nbar\n\nbaz\n";
let mut lines = text.lines();

assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next());

assert_eq!(None, lines.next());

The final line ending isn’t required:

let text = "foo\nbar\n\r\nbaz";
let mut lines = text.lines();

assert_eq!(Some("foo"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("bar"), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some(""), lines.next());
assert_eq!(Some("baz"), lines.next());

assert_eq!(None, lines.next());
👎 Deprecated since 1.4.0:

use lines() instead now

An iterator over the lines of a string.

Returns an iterator of u16 over the string encoded as UTF-16.

Examples

Basic usage:

let text = "Zażółć gęślą jaźń";

let utf8_len = text.len();
let utf16_len = text.encode_utf16().count();

assert!(utf16_len <= utf8_len);

Returns true if the given pattern matches a sub-slice of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Basic usage:

let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.contains("nana"));
assert!(!bananas.contains("apples"));

Returns true if the given pattern matches a prefix of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Basic usage:

let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.starts_with("bana"));
assert!(!bananas.starts_with("nana"));

Returns true if the given pattern matches a suffix of this string slice.

Returns false if it does not.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Basic usage:

let bananas = "bananas";

assert!(bananas.ends_with("anas"));
assert!(!bananas.ends_with("nana"));

Returns the byte index of the first character of this string slice that matches the pattern.

Returns None if the pattern doesn’t match.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard Gepardi";

assert_eq!(s.find('L'), Some(0));
assert_eq!(s.find('é'), Some(14));
assert_eq!(s.find("pard"), Some(17));

More complex patterns using point-free style and closures:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_whitespace), Some(5));
assert_eq!(s.find(char::is_lowercase), Some(1));
assert_eq!(s.find(|c: char| c.is_whitespace() || c.is_lowercase()), Some(1));
assert_eq!(s.find(|c: char| (c < 'o') && (c > 'a')), Some(4));

Not finding the pattern:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];

assert_eq!(s.find(x), None);

Returns the byte index for the first character of the last match of the pattern in this string slice.

Returns None if the pattern doesn’t match.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard Gepardi";

assert_eq!(s.rfind('L'), Some(13));
assert_eq!(s.rfind('é'), Some(14));
assert_eq!(s.rfind("pard"), Some(24));

More complex patterns with closures:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";

assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_whitespace), Some(12));
assert_eq!(s.rfind(char::is_lowercase), Some(20));

Not finding the pattern:

let s = "Löwe 老虎 Léopard";
let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];

assert_eq!(s.rfind(x), None);

An iterator over substrings of this string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, e.g., char, but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rsplit method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".split(' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a", "little", "lamb"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".split('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".split('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tiger", "leopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".split("::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1def2ghi".split(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXtigerXleopard".split(char::is_uppercase).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "tiger", "leopard"]);

If the pattern is a slice of chars, split on each occurrence of any of the characters:

let v: Vec<&str> = "2020-11-03 23:59".split(&['-', ' ', ':', '@'][..]).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["2020", "11", "03", "23", "59"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".split(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "def", "ghi"]);

If a string contains multiple contiguous separators, you will end up with empty strings in the output:

let x = "||||a||b|c".to_string();
let d: Vec<_> = x.split('|').collect();

assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]);

Contiguous separators are separated by the empty string.

let x = "(///)".to_string();
let d: Vec<_> = x.split('/').collect();

assert_eq!(d, &["(", "", "", ")"]);

Separators at the start or end of a string are neighbored by empty strings.

let d: Vec<_> = "010".split("0").collect();
assert_eq!(d, &["", "1", ""]);

When the empty string is used as a separator, it separates every character in the string, along with the beginning and end of the string.

let f: Vec<_> = "rust".split("").collect();
assert_eq!(f, &["", "r", "u", "s", "t", ""]);

Contiguous separators can lead to possibly surprising behavior when whitespace is used as the separator. This code is correct:

let x = "    a  b c".to_string();
let d: Vec<_> = x.split(' ').collect();

assert_eq!(d, &["", "", "", "", "a", "", "b", "c"]);

It does not give you:

assert_eq!(d, &["a", "b", "c"]);

Use split_whitespace for this behavior.

An iterator over substrings of this string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern. Differs from the iterator produced by split in that split_inclusive leaves the matched part as the terminator of the substring.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples
let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb\nlittle lamb\nlittle lamb."
    .split_inclusive('\n').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary had a little lamb\n", "little lamb\n", "little lamb."]);

If the last element of the string is matched, that element will be considered the terminator of the preceding substring. That substring will be the last item returned by the iterator.

let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb\nlittle lamb\nlittle lamb.\n"
    .split_inclusive('\n').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary had a little lamb\n", "little lamb\n", "little lamb.\n"]);

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern and yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the split method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplit(' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "a", "had", "Mary"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".rsplit('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplit('X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "", "lion"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplit("::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lion"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplit(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "def", "abc"]);

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by characters matched by a pattern.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Equivalent to split, except that the trailing substring is skipped if empty.

This method can be used for string data that is terminated, rather than separated by a pattern.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, e.g., char, but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rsplit_terminator method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".split_terminator('.').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["A", "B"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".split_terminator(".").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["A", "", "B", ""]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B:C.D".split_terminator(&['.', ':'][..]).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["A", "B", "C", "D"]);

An iterator over substrings of self, separated by characters matched by a pattern and yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Equivalent to split, except that the trailing substring is skipped if empty.

This method can be used for string data that is terminated, rather than separated by a pattern.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be double ended if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the split_terminator method can be used.

Examples
let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B.".rsplit_terminator('.').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["B", "A"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A..B..".rsplit_terminator(".").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["", "B", "", "A"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "A.B:C.D".rsplit_terminator(&['.', ':'][..]).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["D", "C", "B", "A"]);

An iterator over substrings of the given string slice, separated by a pattern, restricted to returning at most n items.

If n substrings are returned, the last substring (the nth substring) will contain the remainder of the string.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will not be double ended, because it is not efficient to support.

If the pattern allows a reverse search, the rsplitn method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lambda".splitn(3, ' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["Mary", "had", "a little lambda"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".splitn(3, "X").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lion", "", "tigerXleopard"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXdef".splitn(1, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abcXdef"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "".splitn(1, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, [""]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".splitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "defXghi"]);

An iterator over substrings of this string slice, separated by a pattern, starting from the end of the string, restricted to returning at most n items.

If n substrings are returned, the last substring (the nth substring) will contain the remainder of the string.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will not be double ended, because it is not efficient to support.

For splitting from the front, the splitn method can be used.

Examples

Simple patterns:

let v: Vec<&str> = "Mary had a little lamb".rsplitn(3, ' ').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["lamb", "little", "Mary had a"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lionXXtigerXleopard".rsplitn(3, 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "tiger", "lionX"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "lion::tiger::leopard".rsplitn(2, "::").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["leopard", "lion::tiger"]);

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abc1defXghi".rsplitn(2, |c| c == '1' || c == 'X').collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["ghi", "abc1def"]);

Splits the string on the first occurrence of the specified delimiter and returns prefix before delimiter and suffix after delimiter.

Examples
assert_eq!("cfg".split_once('='), None);
assert_eq!("cfg=".split_once('='), Some(("cfg", "")));
assert_eq!("cfg=foo".split_once('='), Some(("cfg", "foo")));
assert_eq!("cfg=foo=bar".split_once('='), Some(("cfg", "foo=bar")));

Splits the string on the last occurrence of the specified delimiter and returns prefix before delimiter and suffix after delimiter.

Examples
assert_eq!("cfg".rsplit_once('='), None);
assert_eq!("cfg=foo".rsplit_once('='), Some(("cfg", "foo")));
assert_eq!("cfg=foo=bar".rsplit_once('='), Some(("cfg=foo", "bar")));

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within the given string slice.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, e.g., char, but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rmatches method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".matches("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".matches(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["1", "2", "3"]);

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within this string slice, yielded in reverse order.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the matches method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

let v: Vec<&str> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatches("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["abc", "abc", "abc"]);

let v: Vec<&str> = "1abc2abc3".rmatches(char::is_numeric).collect();
assert_eq!(v, ["3", "2", "1"]);

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within this string slice as well as the index that the match starts at.

For matches of pat within self that overlap, only the indices corresponding to the first match are returned.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator will be a DoubleEndedIterator if the pattern allows a reverse search and forward/reverse search yields the same elements. This is true for, e.g., char, but not for &str.

If the pattern allows a reverse search but its results might differ from a forward search, the rmatch_indices method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".match_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(0, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (12, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".match_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(1, "abc"), (4, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".match_indices("aba").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(0, "aba")]); // only the first `aba`

An iterator over the disjoint matches of a pattern within self, yielded in reverse order along with the index of the match.

For matches of pat within self that overlap, only the indices corresponding to the last match are returned.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Iterator behavior

The returned iterator requires that the pattern supports a reverse search, and it will be a DoubleEndedIterator if a forward/reverse search yields the same elements.

For iterating from the front, the match_indices method can be used.

Examples

Basic usage:

let v: Vec<_> = "abcXXXabcYYYabc".rmatch_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(12, "abc"), (6, "abc"), (0, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "1abcabc2".rmatch_indices("abc").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(4, "abc"), (1, "abc")]);

let v: Vec<_> = "ababa".rmatch_indices("aba").collect();
assert_eq!(v, [(2, "aba")]); // only the last `aba`

Returns a string slice with leading and trailing whitespace removed.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space, which includes newlines.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "\n Hello\tworld\t\n";

assert_eq!("Hello\tworld", s.trim());

Returns a string slice with leading whitespace removed.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space, which includes newlines.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. start in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a left-to-right language like English or Russian, this will be left side, and for right-to-left languages like Arabic or Hebrew, this will be the right side.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "\n Hello\tworld\t\n";
assert_eq!("Hello\tworld\t\n", s.trim_start());

Directionality:

let s = "  English  ";
assert!(Some('E') == s.trim_start().chars().next());

let s = "  עברית  ";
assert!(Some('ע') == s.trim_start().chars().next());

Returns a string slice with trailing whitespace removed.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space, which includes newlines.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. end in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a left-to-right language like English or Russian, this will be right side, and for right-to-left languages like Arabic or Hebrew, this will be the left side.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "\n Hello\tworld\t\n";
assert_eq!("\n Hello\tworld", s.trim_end());

Directionality:

let s = "  English  ";
assert!(Some('h') == s.trim_end().chars().rev().next());

let s = "  עברית  ";
assert!(Some('ת') == s.trim_end().chars().rev().next());
👎 Deprecated since 1.33.0:

superseded by trim_start

Returns a string slice with leading whitespace removed.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. ‘Left’ in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are ‘right to left’ rather than ‘left to right’, this will be the right side, not the left.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = " Hello\tworld\t";

assert_eq!("Hello\tworld\t", s.trim_left());

Directionality:

let s = "  English";
assert!(Some('E') == s.trim_left().chars().next());

let s = "  עברית";
assert!(Some('ע') == s.trim_left().chars().next());
👎 Deprecated since 1.33.0:

superseded by trim_end

Returns a string slice with trailing whitespace removed.

‘Whitespace’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property White_Space.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. ‘Right’ in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are ‘right to left’ rather than ‘left to right’, this will be the left side, not the right.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = " Hello\tworld\t";

assert_eq!(" Hello\tworld", s.trim_right());

Directionality:

let s = "English  ";
assert!(Some('h') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next());

let s = "עברית  ";
assert!(Some('ת') == s.trim_right().chars().rev().next());

Returns a string slice with all prefixes and suffixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples

Simple patterns:

assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_matches('1'), "foo1bar");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_matches(x), "foo1bar");

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

assert_eq!("1foo1barXX".trim_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "foo1bar");

Returns a string slice with all prefixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. start in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a left-to-right language like English or Russian, this will be left side, and for right-to-left languages like Arabic or Hebrew, this will be the right side.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_start_matches('1'), "foo1bar11");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_start_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar123");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_start_matches(x), "foo1bar12");

Returns a string slice with the prefix removed.

If the string starts with the pattern prefix, returns substring after the prefix, wrapped in Some. Unlike trim_start_matches, this method removes the prefix exactly once.

If the string does not start with prefix, returns None.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples
assert_eq!("foo:bar".strip_prefix("foo:"), Some("bar"));
assert_eq!("foo:bar".strip_prefix("bar"), None);
assert_eq!("foofoo".strip_prefix("foo"), Some("foo"));

Returns a string slice with the suffix removed.

If the string ends with the pattern suffix, returns the substring before the suffix, wrapped in Some. Unlike trim_end_matches, this method removes the suffix exactly once.

If the string does not end with suffix, returns None.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Examples
assert_eq!("bar:foo".strip_suffix(":foo"), Some("bar"));
assert_eq!("bar:foo".strip_suffix("bar"), None);
assert_eq!("foofoo".strip_suffix("foo"), Some("foo"));

Returns a string slice with all suffixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. end in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a left-to-right language like English or Russian, this will be right side, and for right-to-left languages like Arabic or Hebrew, this will be the left side.

Examples

Simple patterns:

assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_end_matches('1'), "11foo1bar");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_end_matches(char::is_numeric), "123foo1bar");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_end_matches(x), "12foo1bar");

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

assert_eq!("1fooX".trim_end_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "1foo");
👎 Deprecated since 1.33.0:

superseded by trim_start_matches

Returns a string slice with all prefixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. ‘Left’ in this context means the first position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are ‘right to left’ rather than ‘left to right’, this will be the right side, not the left.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_left_matches('1'), "foo1bar11");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_left_matches(char::is_numeric), "foo1bar123");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_left_matches(x), "foo1bar12");
👎 Deprecated since 1.33.0:

superseded by trim_end_matches

Returns a string slice with all suffixes that match a pattern repeatedly removed.

The pattern can be a &str, char, a slice of chars, or a function or closure that determines if a character matches.

Text directionality

A string is a sequence of bytes. ‘Right’ in this context means the last position of that byte string; for a language like Arabic or Hebrew which are ‘right to left’ rather than ‘left to right’, this will be the left side, not the right.

Examples

Simple patterns:

assert_eq!("11foo1bar11".trim_right_matches('1'), "11foo1bar");
assert_eq!("123foo1bar123".trim_right_matches(char::is_numeric), "123foo1bar");

let x: &[_] = &['1', '2'];
assert_eq!("12foo1bar12".trim_right_matches(x), "12foo1bar");

A more complex pattern, using a closure:

assert_eq!("1fooX".trim_right_matches(|c| c == '1' || c == 'X'), "1foo");

Parses this string slice into another type.

Because parse is so general, it can cause problems with type inference. As such, parse is one of the few times you’ll see the syntax affectionately known as the ‘turbofish’: ::<>. This helps the inference algorithm understand specifically which type you’re trying to parse into.

parse can parse into any type that implements the FromStr trait.

Errors

Will return Err if it’s not possible to parse this string slice into the desired type.

Examples

Basic usage

let four: u32 = "4".parse().unwrap();

assert_eq!(4, four);

Using the ‘turbofish’ instead of annotating four:

let four = "4".parse::<u32>();

assert_eq!(Ok(4), four);

Failing to parse:

let nope = "j".parse::<u32>();

assert!(nope.is_err());

Checks if all characters in this string are within the ASCII range.

Examples
let ascii = "hello!\n";
let non_ascii = "Grüße, Jürgen ❤";

assert!(ascii.is_ascii());
assert!(!non_ascii.is_ascii());

Checks that two strings are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

Same as to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b), but without allocating and copying temporaries.

Examples
assert!("Ferris".eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRIS"));
assert!("Ferrös".eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRöS"));
assert!(!"Ferrös".eq_ignore_ascii_case("FERRÖS"));

Converts this string to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_uppercase().

Examples
let mut s = String::from("Grüße, Jürgen ❤");

s.make_ascii_uppercase();

assert_eq!("GRüßE, JüRGEN ❤", s);

Converts this string to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_lowercase().

Examples
let mut s = String::from("GRÜßE, JÜRGEN ❤");

s.make_ascii_lowercase();

assert_eq!("grÜße, jÜrgen ❤", s);

Return an iterator that escapes each char in self with char::escape_debug.

Note: only extended grapheme codepoints that begin the string will be escaped.

Examples

As an iterator:

for c in "❤\n!".escape_debug() {
    print!("{c}");
}
println!();

Using println! directly:

println!("{}", "❤\n!".escape_debug());

Both are equivalent to:

println!("❤\\n!");

Using to_string:

assert_eq!("❤\n!".escape_debug().to_string(), "❤\\n!");

Return an iterator that escapes each char in self with char::escape_default.

Examples

As an iterator:

for c in "❤\n!".escape_default() {
    print!("{c}");
}
println!();

Using println! directly:

println!("{}", "❤\n!".escape_default());

Both are equivalent to:

println!("\\u{{2764}}\\n!");

Using to_string:

assert_eq!("❤\n!".escape_default().to_string(), "\\u{2764}\\n!");

Return an iterator that escapes each char in self with char::escape_unicode.

Examples

As an iterator:

for c in "❤\n!".escape_unicode() {
    print!("{c}");
}
println!();

Using println! directly:

println!("{}", "❤\n!".escape_unicode());

Both are equivalent to:

println!("\\u{{2764}}\\u{{a}}\\u{{21}}");

Using to_string:

assert_eq!("❤\n!".escape_unicode().to_string(), "\\u{2764}\\u{a}\\u{21}");

Replaces all matches of a pattern with another string.

replace creates a new String, and copies the data from this string slice into it. While doing so, it attempts to find matches of a pattern. If it finds any, it replaces them with the replacement string slice.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "this is old";

assert_eq!("this is new", s.replace("old", "new"));
assert_eq!("than an old", s.replace("is", "an"));

When the pattern doesn’t match:

let s = "this is old";
assert_eq!(s, s.replace("cookie monster", "little lamb"));

Replaces first N matches of a pattern with another string.

replacen creates a new String, and copies the data from this string slice into it. While doing so, it attempts to find matches of a pattern. If it finds any, it replaces them with the replacement string slice at most count times.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "foo foo 123 foo";
assert_eq!("new new 123 foo", s.replacen("foo", "new", 2));
assert_eq!("faa fao 123 foo", s.replacen('o', "a", 3));
assert_eq!("foo foo new23 foo", s.replacen(char::is_numeric, "new", 1));

When the pattern doesn’t match:

let s = "this is old";
assert_eq!(s, s.replacen("cookie monster", "little lamb", 10));

Returns the lowercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

‘Lowercase’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Lowercase.

Since some characters can expand into multiple characters when changing the case, this function returns a String instead of modifying the parameter in-place.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "HELLO";

assert_eq!("hello", s.to_lowercase());

A tricky example, with sigma:

let sigma = "Σ";

assert_eq!("σ", sigma.to_lowercase());

// but at the end of a word, it's ς, not σ:
let odysseus = "ὈΔΥΣΣΕΎΣ";

assert_eq!("ὀδυσσεύς", odysseus.to_lowercase());

Languages without case are not changed:

let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_lowercase());

Returns the uppercase equivalent of this string slice, as a new String.

‘Uppercase’ is defined according to the terms of the Unicode Derived Core Property Uppercase.

Since some characters can expand into multiple characters when changing the case, this function returns a String instead of modifying the parameter in-place.

Examples

Basic usage:

let s = "hello";

assert_eq!("HELLO", s.to_uppercase());

Scripts without case are not changed:

let new_year = "农历新年";

assert_eq!(new_year, new_year.to_uppercase());

One character can become multiple:

let s = "tschüß";

assert_eq!("TSCHÜSS", s.to_uppercase());

Creates a new String by repeating a string n times.

Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!("abc".repeat(4), String::from("abcabcabcabc"));

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
let huge = "0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::MAX);

Returns a copy of this string where each character is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘a’ to ‘z’ are mapped to ‘A’ to ‘Z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

To uppercase ASCII characters in addition to non-ASCII characters, use to_uppercase.

Examples
let s = "Grüße, Jürgen ❤";

assert_eq!("GRüßE, JüRGEN ❤", s.to_ascii_uppercase());

Returns a copy of this string where each character is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters ‘A’ to ‘Z’ are mapped to ‘a’ to ‘z’, but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

To lowercase ASCII characters in addition to non-ASCII characters, use to_lowercase.

Examples
let s = "Grüße, Jürgen ❤";

assert_eq!("grüße, jürgen ❤", s.to_ascii_lowercase());

Trait Implementations

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns a copy of the value. Read more

Performs copy-assignment from source. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

The resulting type after dereferencing.

Dereferences the value.

Deserialize this value from the given Serde deserializer. Read more

Formats the value using the given formatter. Read more

Converts to this type from the input type.

Converts to this type from the input type.

Converts to this type from the input type.

Converts to this type from the input type.

Feeds this value into the given Hasher. Read more

Feeds a slice of this type into the given Hasher. Read more

Converts this type into the (usually inferred) input type.

This method returns an Ordering between self and other. Read more

Compares and returns the maximum of two values. Read more

Compares and returns the minimum of two values. Read more

Restrict a value to a certain interval. Read more

This method tests for self and other values to be equal, and is used by ==. Read more

This method tests for !=.

This method returns an ordering between self and other values if one exists. Read more

This method tests less than (for self and other) and is used by the < operator. Read more

This method tests less than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the <= operator. Read more

This method tests greater than (for self and other) and is used by the > operator. Read more

This method tests greater than or equal to (for self and other) and is used by the >= operator. Read more

Serialize this value into the given Serde serializer. Read more

Auto Trait Implementations

Blanket Implementations

Gets the TypeId of self. Read more

Immutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Mutably borrows from an owned value. Read more

Returns the argument unchanged.

Calls U::from(self).

That is, this conversion is whatever the implementation of From<T> for U chooses to do.

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

Creates owned data from borrowed data, usually by cloning. Read more

Uses borrowed data to replace owned data, usually by cloning. Read more

Converts the given value to a String. Read more

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

Performs the conversion.